As a coordinating conjunction; expressing two elements to be taken together or in addition to each other.
Used simply to connect two noun phrases, adjectives or adverbs. (defdate)
c. 1430 (reprinted 1888), Thomas Austin, ed., ''Two Fifteenth-century Cookery-books. Harleian ms. 279 (ab. 1430), & Harl. ms. 4016 (ab. 1450), with Extracts from Ashmole ms. 1429, Laud ms. 553, & Douce ms. 55'' English Text Society, Original Series; 91, London: N. Trübner & Co. for the (w), volume I, Computer Library Center|OCLC 374760, page 11:
- Soupes dorye. — Take gode almaunde mylke (..) caste þher-to Safroun an Salt (..)
1596-97, (w), ''(w)'', Act V Scene 1
- Sweet lady, you have given me life and living; (..)
- In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
1817, (w), ''Persuasion'':
- as for Mrs. Smith, she had claims of various kinds to recommend her quickly and permanently.
2011, Mark Townsend, ''The Guardian'', 5 November:
- ‘The UKBA has some serious explaining to do if it is routinely carrying out such abusive and unlawful inspections.’
Simply connecting two clauses or sentences. (defdate)
1991, (w), ''Wild Swans'':
- When she saw several boys carrying a huge wooden case full of porcelain, she mumbled to Jinming that she was going to have a look, and left the room.
2011, Helena Smith & Tom Kington, ''The Guardian'', 5 November:
- "Consensus is essential for the country," he said, adding that he was not "tied" to his post and was willing to step aside.
Introducing a clause or sentence which follows on in time or consequence from the first. (defdate)
1996, David Beasley, ''Chocolate for the Poor'':
- ‘But if you think you can get it, Christian, you're a fool. Set one foot upcountry and I'll kill you.’
2004, Will Buckley, ''The Observer'':, 22 August:
- One more error and all the good work she had done on Friday would be for nought.
1611, Authorised (King James) Version, ''Bible'', Matthew XXII:
- Hee said, I goe sir, and went not.
Used to connect certain numbers: connecting units when they precede tens (qualifier); connecting tens and units to hundreds, thousands etc. (now often omitted in US); to connect fractions to wholes. (defdate)
1956, (w), (title):
- The One Hundred and One Dalmatians.
Used to connect more than two elements together in a chain, sometimes to stress the number of elements.
1623, (w), ''Julius Caesar'', First Folio, II.2:
- And these does she apply, for warnings and portents, / And euils imminent; and on her knee / Hath begg'd, that I will stay at home to day.
1939, Langley, Ryerson & Woolf, ''The Wizard of Oz'' (screenplay):
- Lions, and tigers, and bears! Oh, my!
Connecting two identical elements, with implications of continued or infinite repetition. (defdate)
1611, Authorised (King James) Version, ''Bible'', Psalms CXLV:
- I will extol thee, my God, O king; and I will bless thy name for ever and ever.
2011, Jonathan Watts, ''The Guardian'', 18 March:
- He was at work in a nearby city when the tsunami struck. ‘As soon as I saw it, I called home. It rang and rang, but there was no answer.’
Introducing a parenthetical or explanatory clause. (defdate)
1918, (w), ''Prime Ministers and Some Others'':
- The word "capable" occurs in Mr. Fisher's Bill, and rightly, because our mental and physical capacities are infinitely varied.
2008, ''The Guardian'', 29 Jan 2008:
- President Pervez Musharraf is undoubtedly sincere in his belief that he, and he alone, can save Pakistan from the twin perils of terrorism and anarchy.
Introducing the continuation of narration from a previous understood point; also used alone as a question: ‘and so what?’.
1611, Authorised (King James) Version, ''Bible'', Revelation XIV:
- And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps(nb..).
1861, (w), ''Great Expectations'':
- ‘You take it smoothly now,’ said I, ‘but you were very serious last night, when you swore it was Death.’ ‘And so I swear it is Death,’ said he, putting his pipe back in his mouth(nb..).
1914, (w), ‘The Lull’, ''Beasts and Superbeasts'':
- ‘And, Vera,’ added Mrs. Durmot, turning to her sixteen-year-old niece, ‘be careful what colour ribbon you wear in your hair(nb..).’
Used to connect two verbs where the second is dependent on the first: ‘to’. Used especially after (m), (m) and (m). (defdate)
1817, (w), ''Sanditon'':
- Beyond paying her a few charming compliments and amusing her with gay conversation, had he done anything at all to try and gain her affection?
1989, (w), ''A Disaffection'':
- Remember and help yourself to the soup! called Gavin.
Introducing a qualitative difference between things having the same name; "as well as other". (defdate)
1936, ''The Labour Monthly'', vol. XVIII:
- Undoubtedly every party makes mistakes. But there are mistakes and mistakes.
1972, ''Esquire'', vol. LXXVIII:
- "There are managers and there are managers," he tells me. "I'm totally involved in every aspect of Nina's career."
1791, (w), ''Life of Samuel Johnson'':
- ‘Nobody attempts to dispute that two and two make four: but with contests concerning moral truth, human passions are generally mixed(nb..).’
1871, (w), ''Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There'':
- ‘Can you do Addition?’ the White Queen asked. ‘What's one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one?’
''Expressing a condition.''
If; provided that. (defdate)
1485, Sir Thomas Malory, ''Le Morte Darthur'', Book VII:
- "Where ys Sir Launcelot?" seyde King Arthure. "And he were here, he wolde nat grucche to do batayle for you."
1526, William Tyndale, trans. ''Bible'', Matthew XIV:
- Peter answered, and sayde: master, and thou be he, bidde me come unto the on the water.
1958, (w), ''The Hard Blue Sky'':
- "And he went slower," Mike said softly, "he go better."
1600, (w), ''A Midsummer Night's Dream'', I.2:
- I will roare you, and 'twere any Nightingale.
(RQ:Bacon Of Innovation)
- As they will set an house on fire, and it were but to roast their eggs.
connecting two formed formulas to create a well formed formula that requires the new formula to only be true when each of the two are true.
act of giving
(label) to give
(l), (l) then (gloss)
- (quote-book) |translation=Now, brother Walter, my brother / by way of blood relation / and my brother in Christendom / through baptising and through faith (..)
- (quote-book)|author=Dan Michel|chapter=Þe oþer Godes Heste|passage=Ac þe ilke / þet zuereþ hidousliche be god / oþer by his halȝen / and him to-breȝþ / and zayþ him sclondres / þet ne byeþ naȝt to zigge: þe ilke zeneȝeþ dyadliche (..)|translation=But one who / hideously swears by God / or by his emissaries / and who tears him apart / while saying to him lies / that shouldn't be said: they sin grievously. (..)
- (quote-book)" |translation="Lords", said Richard, "Don't be frightened, but hold your way forwards / and quickly and boldy do your deed (..)"
- (RQ:Wycliffe NT Lichfield)
- (quote-book)|title=(w) |chapter=General Prologue|lines=1-3|passage=Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote /, The droghte of March hath perced to the roote / And bathed every veyne in swich licour (..)|translation=When that April, with its sweet showers / Has pierced March's drought to the root / And bathed every vein in such fluid (..)
canard (false or misleading report or story)
a (l) (q)
(alternative form of)
a wild duck